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川西北地区中二叠统栖霞组白云岩形成机理——以车家坝剖面为例

曾杰 董少峰

曾杰, 董少峰. 川西北地区中二叠统栖霞组白云岩形成机理——以车家坝剖面为例[J]. 石油实验地质, 2024, 46(2): 288-298. doi: 10.11781/sysydz202402288
引用本文: 曾杰, 董少峰. 川西北地区中二叠统栖霞组白云岩形成机理——以车家坝剖面为例[J]. 石油实验地质, 2024, 46(2): 288-298. doi: 10.11781/sysydz202402288
ZENG Jie, DONG Shaofeng. Origin of dolomite in Middle Permian Qixia Formation in northwestern Sichuan Basin: a case study of Chejiaba section[J]. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY & EXPERIMENT, 2024, 46(2): 288-298. doi: 10.11781/sysydz202402288
Citation: ZENG Jie, DONG Shaofeng. Origin of dolomite in Middle Permian Qixia Formation in northwestern Sichuan Basin: a case study of Chejiaba section[J]. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY & EXPERIMENT, 2024, 46(2): 288-298. doi: 10.11781/sysydz202402288

川西北地区中二叠统栖霞组白云岩形成机理——以车家坝剖面为例

doi: 10.11781/sysydz202402288
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金面上基金 42072139

详细信息
    作者简介:

    曾杰(1999—),男,硕士生,沉积学(含古地理学)专业。E-mail: Zengjie_0712@163.com

    通讯作者:

    董少峰(1983—),男,副研究员,硕士生导师,从事碳酸盐岩沉积成储的基础理论和应用研究。E-mail:dsf8332@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TE122.21

Origin of dolomite in Middle Permian Qixia Formation in northwestern Sichuan Basin: a case study of Chejiaba section

  • 摘要: 以岩石学观察为基础,结合稳定同位素与团簇同位素分析,探讨了川西北地区中二叠统栖霞组白云岩形成机理。川西北车家坝剖面白云岩集中发育于栖霞组上段,可识别出基质白云石与白云石胶结物2种不同类型的白云石。基质白云岩呈灰白色,与灰岩接触界线截然,呈指状交错接触;白云石胶结物呈乳白色,局限分布于溶蚀孔洞的边缘。镜下可进一步划分为3种类型基质白云石,即漂浮状细晶直面自形—半自形基质白云石(Md1)、细—中晶直面自形—半自形基质白云石(Md2)、中—粗晶它形曲面基质白云石(Md3),以及一种鞍形白云石胶结物(Sd)。Md1沿缝合线呈漂浮状分布于灰泥基质中,可能为浅埋藏环境下压溶作用的产物。Md2与Md3具有与宿主灰岩相似的δ13C、δ18O和87Sr/86Sr同位素特征,指示白云石化流体主要来源于二叠纪同期海水,而相对较高的成岩温度说明受二叠纪末大规模火山活动的影响显著。鞍形白云石及其后的方解石胶结物具有明显偏负的δ18O值和放射性87Sr/86Sr值,说明它们形成于高温外源富放射性锶的白云石化流体中,可能为来自或穿过碎屑岩地层的深部热流体。川西北地区栖霞组白云岩的形成受原始沉积相与断裂活动的双重控制,热流体的注入使原始滩相地层发生白云石化作用,形成大量溶洞与晶间溶孔,对储层的改造起到了积极的建设性作用。

     

  • 图  1  川西北地区地质背景

    a.车家坝剖面大地构造位置(改自邓小亮等[17]);b.车家坝剖面地层柱状图。

    Figure  1.  Geological settings of northwestern Sichuan Basin

    图  2  川西北地区K2井埋藏热史及古热流趋势

    红色为栖霞组;据DONG等[11]

    Figure  2.  Burial history and paleoheat flow distribution of well K2 in northwestern Sichuan Basin

    图  3  川西北地区车家坝剖面栖霞组下段宿主灰岩岩石学特征

    a.灰色中层粒泥灰岩与深灰色泥灰岩互层;b.泥灰岩中生物定向性排列;c.粒泥灰岩中单体珊瑚原始结构保存良好,被沥青浸染的微裂缝发育;d.粒泥灰岩镜下特征,单偏光;e.泥灰岩中生屑定向性排列,微裂缝与缝合线大量发育并被沥青充填,正交偏光;f.生屑颗粒中世代方解石胶结物,并被缝合线切割,正交偏光;g.生屑颗粒丰富,颗粒间灰泥支撑,灰泥基质与生屑颗粒发极暗红色光;h.泥灰岩阴极发光特征与粒泥灰岩相似,发极暗红色光。

    Figure  3.  Petrology characteristics of host limestone in lower part of Qixia Formation, Chejiaba section, northwestern Sichuan Basin

    图  4  川西北地区车家坝剖面栖霞组Md1白云石宏、微观特征

    a.灰岩与白云岩呈指状交错接触,局部含有残留的原始灰岩(黄色圈);b.孔洞被沥青与鞍形白云石充填(黄色箭头);c.Md1间呈点—线接触或漂浮状分布,雾心亮边特征明显,正交偏光;d.为图c中的红框放大部位,Md1沿缝合线发育,正交偏光;e.自形程度相对较差的Md1晶体间呈晶簇状分布,单偏光;f.Md1发环带状红光。

    Figure  4.  Macro- and microscopic characteristics of Md1 dolomite of Qixia Formation in Chejiaba section, northwestern Sichuan Basin

    图  5  川西北地区车家坝剖面栖霞组Md2岩石学特征

    a.Md2呈自形—半自形结构,晶体间为点—线接触,与Md3呈过渡接触,单偏光;b.Md2晶体间孔隙发育,以平直晶面晶间孔为主(黄色箭头),单偏光;c.Md2被缝合线(白色箭头)切割,单偏光;d.Md2呈环带状发光,与Md1类似。

    Figure  5.  Petrology characteristics of Md2 dolomite of Qixia Formation in Chejiaba section, northwestern Sichuan Basin

    图  6  川西北地区车家坝剖面栖霞组Md3与缝洞充填物(Sd与Cc)的岩石学特征

    a.Md3晶面弯曲、浑浊,晶体间呈镶嵌状接触,溶蚀孔发育,单偏光;b.Md3具明显波状消光特征,正交偏光;c.溶蚀孔洞被鞍形白云石与方解石完全充填,鞍形白云石被沥青浸染,单偏光;d.图c的正交偏光特征;e.Md3、Sd与Cc共生关系,单偏光;f.Sd发红光,Cc不发光,Md3发暗红光—不发光。

    Figure  6.  Petrographic characteristics of Md3 dolomite and subsequent fracture and vug fillings (Sd and Cc) of Qixia Formation in Chejiaba section, northwestern Sichuan Basin

    图  7  川西北地区车家坝剖面不同类型样品碳氧同位素(a)与锶同位素(b)特征

    图中蓝色区域为中二叠世海水碳氧同位素与锶同位素范围。

    Figure  7.  Carbon and oxygen isotope (a) and strontium isotope (b) characteristics of different types of samples from Chejiaba section, northwestern Sichuan Basin

    图  8  川西北中二叠统栖霞组白云岩成因模式示意

    改自DONG等[11]与韩月卿等[40]

    Figure  8.  Genetic model of dolomite of Middle Permian Qixia Formation in northwestern Sichuan Basin

    表  1  川西北地区车家坝剖面与K2井栖霞组不同类型碳酸盐岩地球化学分析测试结果

    Table  1.   Geochemical analytical results of different types of carbonates from Qixia Formation in Chejiaba section and well K2, northwestern Sichuan Basin

    样品号 测试类型 δ13CVPDB/‰ δ18OVPDB/‰ Δ47/‰ TΔ47 /℃ 87Sr/86Sr
    CJB-01 宿主灰岩 2.89 -5.02
    CJB-17 宿主灰岩 2.84 -4.66
    CJB-48 宿主灰岩 2.97 -8.25 0.595 7 52.3 0.707 6
    CJB-60 宿主灰岩 0.57 -7.87 0.593 3 53.0 0.707 5
    CJB-105 宿主灰岩 2.49 -7.45
    CJB-60 Md1 1.45 -8.20
    CJB-105 Md1 3.14 -4.77 0.707 2
    CJB-67 Md2 2.81 -7.18 0.549 9 65.5 0.707 6
    CJB-72 Md2 2.79 -7.71
    CJB-56 Md2 2.52 -7.84 0.707 5
    CJB-97 Md2 2.69 -6.69
    CJB-87 Md2 2.68 -6.66 0.562 5 61.7 0.707 4
    CJB-58 Md3 2.70 -6.39
    CJB-76 Md3 2.46 -7.80 0.707 5
    CJB-80 Md3 2.58 -6.72 0.707 4
    CJB-92 Md3 2.30 -6.78 0.515 3 76.6 0.707 4
    CJB-99 Md3 2.79 -7.11
    K2-22 Sd 1.01 -16.35 0.709 8
    K2-11 Sd 1.03 -14.18 0.709 7
    CJB-59 Cc -1.71 -11.55 0.708 9
    CJB-92 Cc -5.48 -15.49 0.569 2 59.7 0.708 7
    注:K2-22、K2-11鞍形白云石数据来源于PAN等[30]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-10-17
  • 修回日期:  2024-02-23
  • 刊出日期:  2024-03-28

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